Glossary of Library Terms
There are currently 7 Terminology in this directory beginning with the letter #.
A gauge of motion picture film, 16 millimeters wide from edge to edge, with perforations along one edge and space for a sound track along the other (silent 16mm film has perforations on both sides). Introduced by Kodak in 1923 as a safe, nonflammable alternative for the amateur and educational (documentary) markets, 16mm film is the gauge most commonly found in the collections of American archives, libraries, and museums. Used extensively for military training films during World War II, it has 40 frames per foot and one perforation per frame. Sound 16mm film is shot and projected at a speed of 24 frames per second; silent 16mm at 16 frames per second. Introduced in 1971, Super 16mm is a negative-only film with a frame area 40 percent greater than regular 16mm, enlarged to 35mm in processing. Because 16mm cameras and projectors are portable and easy to operate, early enthusiasts formed cine clubs to share their work and exchange information. Many 16mm users switched to videotape in the 1970s when portable video equipment became widely available. The Ann Arbor Film Festival still features 16mm films. Click here to learn more, courtesy of Wikipedia. See also: 8mm film.
Library reference services that are available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, for example, the QuestionPoint online collaborative reference service from OCLC.
A two-dimensional image that gives the illusion of perception in three dimensions (depth). See this 3-D view of Grand Canyon, courtesy of NASA. Also spelled 3D view.
A gauge of motion picture film, 35 millimeters wide from edge to edge, with perforations on both sides. Used by Thomas Edison in his Kinetoscope, a personal film viewer patented in 1887 and introduced at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts in 1893, 35mm film was originally made by cutting 70mm Eastman Kodak roll film in half down the center. It eventually became the standard gauge for the theatrical motion picture industry. With the introduction of sound in 1929, the frame was squared to allow space for the sound track, but the more visually pleasing rectangular frame was soon restored by reducing frame size. 35mm sound film has 16 frames per foot, 6 perforations per inch, and is shot and projected at a speed of 24 frames per second. Because 35mm film is expensive to use and the cameras and projectors are too bulky and heavy to be portable, Kodak developed smaller gauge films (16mm and 8mm) for the amateur and educational markets. Click here to learn more about 35mm film, courtesy of Wikipedia.
A gauge of high-resolution motion picture film, introduced in the 1950s, which measures 65mm from edge to edge in the camera. On prints intended for projection, 2.5mm is added along each side to accommodate magnetic stripes capable of holding 6 tracks of surround sound. Each frame has 5 perforations on each side, with an aspect ratio of 2.2:1. Well-known theatrical 70mm films include 2001: Space Odyssey, Lawrence of Arabia, and My Fair Lady. IMAX 70mm films, shot on 65mm film with the frames positioned lengthwise, have no sound tracks on the projection print; instead, synchronized digital sound is played separately. Click here to learn more about 70mm film, courtesy of Wikipedia.
A gauge of motion picture film, 8 millimeters wide from edge to edge. Introduced for the home market by Kodak in 1932, Cine Kodak Eight utilized a special 16mm film that had double the number of perforations along both edges, enabling the filmmaker to run the film through the camera in one direction, then reload and expose the other half of the film, similar to the way an audiocassette is used. After development, the film was slit lengthwise down the center and spliced end to end in the laboratory, fitting four times as many frames in the same amount of film. Regular 8mm has 80 frames per foot and the same size sprocket holes as 16mm film. In 1965, Kodak introduced cartridge-loading Super 8mm that eliminated the need to flip and rethread the film. Super 8 has 74 frames per foot and smaller sprocket holes, leaving more area for the image. It is used by both amateurs and professionals and has developed a following among experimental filmmakers. Many well-known cinematographers and directors began their careers using Super 8. Click here to learn more, courtesy of Wikipedia. See also: 35mm film.